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Supercomputer finder historiske hovedveje i Australien

Illustration: Megan Hotchkiss Davidson/Sandia National Laboratories

Hvilken rute var mest populær da de første mennesker gik i land i Australien for 65.000 år siden? Det spørgsmål er en gruppe forskere kommet nærmere ved at simulere 125 milliarder potentielle ruter gennem Australien med en amerikansk supercomputer. Simuleringerne er baseret på en 25-årig kvinde med ti kilos forsyninger på ryggen. Efter et par ugers beregninger har forskerne udpeget en række hovedveje, som højest sandsynligt har været de foretrukne ruter gennem det store land. Resultaterne er netop publiceret i tidsskriftet Nature Human Behavior, og simuleringsmetoderne kan fremadrettet bruges til at kortlægge historiske migrationsruter.

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Det giver ikke mening. Hvem siger at folk fulgte den nemmeste rute?

I sagens natur kender man den jo først frn nemmeste vej når man har prøvet alle de andre.......

Desforuden så har folk nok migreret 10, 20 eller 30 km af gangen for at følge vand, dyr eller hvad der nu skal til for at overleve uden at tænke på det større perspektiv, eller hvor de egentlig vat på vej hen.

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Der er aldrig fundet spor af mennesker ældre end ca. 45.000 år i Australien.

"It's currently believed that Aboriginal ancestors made their way to Australia as long as 65,000 years ago, but new evidence uncovered at a dig site in the continent's southeast may push the timeline back much further. If the site does turn out to be human-made, it suggests that people have been living in Australia for as long as 120,000 years."

https://newatlas.com/dig-site-australia-hu...

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"It's currently believed that Aboriginal ancestors made their way to Australia as long as 65,000 years ago, but new evidence uncovered at a dig site in the continent's southeast may push the timeline back much further. If the site does turn out to be human-made, it suggests that people have been living in Australia for as long as 120,000 years."

https://newatlas.com/dig-site-australia-hu...

But there are quite a few caveats to these claims. For one, there's every chance that the mounds aren't middens at all, but natural formations of some kind. Definitive proof of human occupation from that era, such as tools or bones, have yet to be found.

Det ville undre mig meget om de 120.000 år var korrekt. Der findes kun 3 sikre former for beviser: Menneskeknogler, koprolitter og dyreknogler med klare mærker efter slagtning. Og som sagt knibe det med sikre beviser der er ældre end 45.000 år i Australien.

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"Here we report the results of new excavations conducted at Madjedbebe, a rock shelter in northern Australia. Artefacts in primary depositional context are concentrated in three dense bands, with the stratigraphic integrity of the deposit demonstrated by artefact refits and by optical dating and other analyses of the sediments. Human occupation began around 65,000 years ago, with a distinctive stone tool assemblage including grinding stones, ground ochres, reflective additives and ground-edge hatchet heads. This evidence sets a new minimum age for the arrival of humans in Australia, the dispersal of modern humans out of Africa, and the subsequent interactions of modern humans with Neanderthals and Denisovans."

https://www.nature.com/articles/nature22968

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"Here we report the results of new excavations conducted at Madjedbebe, a rock shelter in northern Australia. Artefacts in primary depositional context are concentrated in three dense bands, with the stratigraphic integrity of the deposit demonstrated by artefact refits and by optical dating and other analyses of the sediments. Human occupation began around 65,000 years ago, with a distinctive stone tool assemblage including grinding stones, ground ochres, reflective additives and ground-edge hatchet heads. This evidence sets a new minimum age for the arrival of humans in Australia, the dispersal of modern humans out of Africa, and the subsequent interactions of modern humans with Neanderthals and Denisovans."

https://www.nature.com/articles/nature22968

https://www.britannica.com/place/Madjedbebe

In 2017 another evaluation based on OSL shifted the date for first occupation even earlier, to between 65,000 and 80,000 years ago.

The date of the first human arrival in Australia via Sahul remains contested, however. Some paleontologists and archaeologists are skeptical of the conclusions drawn from OSL dating at Madjedbebe and Nauwalabila I, largely becasuse both sites are areas of termite activity. They note that termite tunneling can cause large rock fragments, including stone tools, to be displaced downward into older layers. This movement, the skeptics argue, would invalidate the associated dating with the sand surrounding the fragments.

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